Khối lượng riêng các chất kg/m³ 5 5 1

Khối lượng riêng các chất kg/m³

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Khối lượng riêng các chất kg/m³

Bài gửi  duyminh on Mon Feb 14, 2011 4:01 pm





Khối lượng riêng các chất kg/m³
Khối lượng riêng của vật chất là một đặc tính về mật độ của vật chất đó, là đại lượng đo bằng thương số giữa khối lượng m của một vật làm bằng chất ấy (nguyên chất) và thể tích V của vật.

Khi gọi khối lượng riêng là D, ta có: D=m/V

Cụ thể khối lượng riêng tại một vị trí trong vật được tính bằng khối lượng của một thể tích vô cùng nhỏ nằm tại vị trí đó, chia cho thể tích vô cùng nhỏ này.

Nếu chất đó có thêm đặc tính là đồng chất thì khối lượng riêng tại mọi vị trí là như nhau và bằng khối lượng riêng trung bình.

Khối lượng riêng còn được gọi là mật độ khối lượng. Đại lượng vật lý này khác hẳn với đại lượng vật lý trọng lượng riêng, mọi người rất dễ gây nhầm lẫn giữa khái niệm trọng lượng và khối lượng.

Trọng lượng riêng (N/m³) = Gia tốc trọng trường (≈9.81 m/s²) x Khối lượng riêng (kg/m³)

Trong hệ đo lường quốc tế, khối lượng riêng có đơn vị là kilôgam trên mét khối (kg/m³). Một số đơn vị khác hay gặp là gam trên xentimét khối (g/cm³).

Ý nghĩa đơn vị khối lượng riêng: kilôgam trên mét khối là khối lượng riêng của một vật nguyên chất có khối lượng 1 kilôgam và thể tích 1 mét khối.

Khi biết được khối lượng riêng của một vật, ta có thể biết vật được cấu tạo bằng chất gì bằng cách đối chiếu với bảng khối lượng riêng của các chất. Khối lượng riêng một số chất ở nhiệt độ 0°C và áp suất 760mm Hg là:

Nitơ: 1,25 kg/m³
Nước đá: 900 kg/m³
Nhôm: 2600-2700 kg/m³
Kẽm: 7000 kg/m³
Vàng: 19300 kg/m³

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***************************************************************

The mass of over 30 different metals and alloys are listed below. While the data is useful for design, individual samples will differ. Impurities will often have an influence.

A 1000kg of pure water = 1 cubic metre. Pure water was chosen as the 'base line' for specific gravity and given the value of 1. The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or lighter density. For example, beryllium has a specific gravity (sg) of 1.84 (1840 kg/cu.m) (see table below)
As specific gravity is just a comparison, it can be applied across any units. The density of pure water is also 62.4 lbs/cu.ft (pounds per cubic foot) and if we know that a sample of alumimium has a sg of 2.5 then we can calculate that its density is 2.5 x 62.4 = 156 lbs/cu.ft.
Note, kg/cu.m divided by 16.02 = lbs/cu.ft

Metal or alloy kg/cu.m
aluminium - melted 2560 - 2640
aluminium bronze (3-10% Al) 7700 - 8700
aluminium foil 2700 -2750
antifriction metal 9130 -10600
beryllium 1840
beryllium copper 8100 - 8250
brass - casting 8400 - 8700
brass - rolled and drawn 8430 - 8730
bronze - lead 7700 - 8700
bronze - phosphorous 8780 - 8920
bronze (8-14% Sn) 7400 - 8900
cast iron 6800 - 7800
cobolt 8746
copper 8930
delta metal 8600
electrum 8400 - 8900
gold 19320
iron 7850
lead 11340
light alloy based on Al 2560 - 2800
light alloy based on Mg 1760 - 1870
magnesium 1738
mercury 13593
molybdenum 10188
monel 8360 - 8840
nickel 8800
nickel silver 8400 - 8900
platinum 21400
plutonium 19800
silver 10490
steel - rolled 7850
steel - stainless 7480 - 8000
tin 7280
titanium 4500
tungsten 19600
uranium 18900
vanadium 5494
white metal 7100
zinc 7135

****************************
The mass of over 30 different species of wood are listed below. While the data is useful for the design and selection of wood, individual samples will differ. Moisture content will have a marked influence.
As 1000kg of pure water = 1 cubic metre, those materials under 1000kg/cubic metre will float; more dense will sink ie. those materials with a specific gravity more than 1.
Pure water was chosen as the 'base line' for specific gravity and given the value of 1. The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or lighter density. For example, afromosia has a specific gravity (sg) of 0.705 while ebony can have a sg of 1.12 (1120 kg/cu.m) (see table below)
As specific gravity is just a comparison, it can be applied across any units. The density of pure water is also 62.4 lbs/cu.ft (pounds per cubic foot) and if we know that a sample of apple has a sg of 0.73 then we can calculate that its density is 0.73 x 62.4 = 45.552 lbs/cu.ft.
Note, kg/cu.m divided by 16.01846 = lbs/cu.ft

Wood - seasoned & dry kg/cu.m
Afromosia 705
Apple 660 - 830
Ash, black 540
Ash, white 670
Aspen 420
Balsa 170
Bamboo 300 - 400
Birch (British) 670
Cedar, red 380
Cypress 510
Douglas Fir 530
Ebony 960 - 1120
Elm ( English ) 600
Elm ( Wych ) 690
Elm ( Rock ) 815
Iroko 655
Larch 590
Lignum Vitae 1280 - 1370
Mahogany ( Honduras ) 545
Mahogany ( African ) 495 - 850
Maple 755
Oak 590 - 930
Pine ( Oregon ) 530
Pine ( Parana ) 560
Pine ( Canadian ) 350 - 560
Pine ( Red ) 370 - 660
Redwood ( American ) 450
Redwood ( European ) 510
Spruce ( Canadian ) 450
Spruce ( Sitka ) 450
Sycamore 590
Teak 630 - 720
Willow 420

***********************
The mass of over 300 different 'dry' materials are listed below. Liquids, metals and woods are on other pages and a site search facility is on the home page. While the data is useful for the design and selection of bulk materials handling plant, bulk transport and packaging, individual samples will differ. Moisture content will have a marked influence.

As 1000kg of pure water = 1 cubic metre, those materials under 1000kg/cu.m will float; more dense will sink ie. those materials with a specific gravity more than 1.
Pure water was chosen as the 'base line' for specific gravity and given the value of 1. The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or lighter density. For example, ammonium nitrate has a specific gravity (sg) of 0.73 while dry ammonium sulphate has a sg of 1.13 (1130 kilograms/cubic metre) (see table below)
As specific gravity is just a comparison, it can be applied across any units. The density of pure water is also 62.4 lbs/cu.ft (pounds per cubic foot) and if we know that ammonium nitrate has a sg of 0.73 then we can calculate that its density is 0.73 x 62.4 = 45.552 lbs/cu.ft.
Note, kg/cu.m divided by 16.02 = lbs/cu.ft

Material - powder, ore, solids, etc. kg/cu.m.
Alfalfa, ground 256
Alum, lumpy 881
Alum, pulverized 753
Alumina 961
Aluminum, oxide 1522
Ammonia gas 0.77
Ammonium Nitrate 730
Ammonium Sulphate - dry 1130
Ammonium Sulphate - wet 1290
Andesite, solid 2771
Antimony, cast 6696
Apples 641
Arsenic 5671
Asbestos - shredded 320- 400
Asbestos rock 1600
Ashes - wet 730- 890
Ashes - dry 570- 650
Asphalt, crushed 721
Babbitt 7272
Bagasse 120
Bakelite, solid 1362
Baking powder 721
Barium 3780
Bark, wood refuse 240
Barley 609
Barite, crushed 2883
Basalt, broken 1954
Basalt, solid 3011
Bauxite, crushed 1281
Beans, castor 577
Beans, cocoa 593
Beans, navy 801
Beans, soy 721
Beeswax 961
Beets 721
Bentonite 593
Bicarbonate of soda 689
Bismuth 9787
Bones, pulverized 881
Borax, fine 849
Bran 256
Brewers grain 432
Brick, common red 1922
Brick, fire clay 2403
Brick, silica 2050
Brick, chrome 2803
Brick, magnesia 2563
Buckwheat 657
Butter 865
Cadmium 8650
Calcium carbide 1201
Caliche 1442
Carbon, solid 2146
Carbon, powdered 80
Carbon dioxide 1.98
Carbon monoxide 1.25
Cardboard 689
Cement - clinker 1290-1540
Cement, Portland 1506
Cement, mortar 2162
Cement, slurry 1442
Chalk, solid 2499
Chalk, lumpy 1442
Chalk, fine 1121
Charcoal 208
Chloroform 1522
Chocolate, powder 641
Chromic acid, flake 1201
Chromium 6856
Chromium ore 2162
Cinders, furnace 913
Cinders, Coal, ash 641
Clay, dry excavated 1089
Clay, wet excavated 1826
Clay, dry lump 1073
Clay, fire 1362
Clay, wet lump 1602
Clay, compacted 1746
Clover seed 769
Coal, Anthracite, solid 1506
Coal, Anthracite, broken 1105
Coal, Bituminous, solid 1346
Coal, Bituminous, broken 833
Cobaltite ( cobolt ore ) 6295
Coconut, meal 513
Coconut, shredded 352
Coffee, fresh beans 561
Coffee, roast beans 432
Coke 570- 650
Concrete, Asphalt 2243
Concrete, Gravel 2403
Concrete, Limestone with Portland 2371
Copper ore 1940-2590
Copper sulfate, ground 3604
Copra, medium size 529
Copra, meal, ground 641
Copra, expeller cake ground 513
Copra, expeller cake chopped 465
Cork, solid 240
Cork, ground 160
Corn, on the cob 721
Corn, shelled 721
Corn, grits 673
Cottonseed, dry, de-linted 561
Cottonseed, dry, not de-linted 320
Cottonseed, cake, lumpy 673
Cottonseed, hulls 192
Cottonseed, meal 593
Cottonseed, meats 641
Cottonwood 416
Cryolite 1602
Cullet 1602
Culm 753
Dolomite, solid 2899
Dolomite, pulverized 737
Dolomite, lumpy 1522
Earth, loam, dry, excavated 1249
Earth, moist, excavated 1442
Earth, wet, excavated 1602
Earth, dense 2002
Earth, soft loose mud 1730
Earth, packed 1522
Earth, Fullers, raw 673
Emery 4005
Ether 737
Feldspar, solid 2563
Feldspar, pulverized 1233
Fertilizer, acid phosphate 961
Fish, scrap 721
Fish, meal 593
Flaxseed, whole 721
Flint - silica 1390
Flour, wheat 593
Flue dust 1450-2020
Fluorspar, solid 3204
Fluorspar, lumps 1602
Fluorspar, pulverized 1442
Fullers Earth - raw or burnt 570- 730
Galena ( lead ore ) 7400 - 7600
Garbage, household rubbish 481
Glass - broken or cullet 1290-1940
Glass, window 2579
Glue, animal, flaked 561
Glue, vegetable, powdered 641
Gluten, meal 625
Gneiss, bed in place 2867
Gneiss, broken 1858
Granite, solid 2691
Granite, broken 1650
Graphite, flake 641
Grain - Maize 760
Grain - Barley 600
Grain - Millet 760- 800
Grain - Wheat 780- 800
Gravel, loose, dry 1522
Gravel, with sand, natural 1922
Gravel, dry 1/4 to 2 inch 1682
Gravel, wet 1/4 to 2 inch 2002
Gummite ( uranium ore ) 3890 - 6400
Gypsum, solid 2787
Gypsum, broken 1290-1600
Gypsum, crushed 1602
Gypsum, pulverized 1121
Halite (salt), solid 2323
Halite (salt), broken 1506
Hematite ( iron ore ) 5095 - 5205
Hemimorphite ( zinc ore ) 3395 - 3490
Hydrochloric acid 40% 1201
Ice, solid 919
Ice, crushed 593
Ilmenite 2307
Iridium 22154
Iron ore - crushed - see metals table 2100-2900
Iron oxide pigment 400
Iron Pyrites 2400
Iron sulphate - pickling tank - dry 1200
Iron sulphate - pickling tank - wet 1290
Ivory 1842
Kaolin, green crushed 1025
Kaolin, pulverized 352
Lead, rolled - see metals table 11389
Lead, red 3684
Lead, white pigment 4085
Leather 945
Lignite, dry 801
Lime, quick, lump 849
Lime, quick, fine 1201
Lime, stone, large 2691
Lime, stone, lump 1538
Lime, hydrated 481
Lime, wet or mortar 1540
Limonite, solid 3796
Limonite, broken 2467
Limestone, solid 2611
Limestone, broken 1554
Limestone, pulverized 1394
Linseed, whole 753
Linseed, meal 513
Locust, dry 705
Magnesite, solid 3011
Magnesium oxide 1940
Magnesium sulphate, crystal 1121
Magnetite, solid ( iron ore ) 5046
Magnetite, broken 3284
Malachite ( copper ore ) 3750 - 3960
Malt 336
Manganese, solid 7609
Manganese oxide 1922
Manure 400
Marble, solid 2563
Marble, broken 1570
Marl, wet, excavated 2243
Mica, solid 2883
Mica, broken 1602
Mica - flake 520
Mica - powder 986
Milk, powdered 449
Molybdenum ore 1600
Mortar, wet 2403
Mud, packed 1906
Mud, fluid 1730
Nickel ore 1600
Nickel, rolled 8666
Nickel silver 8442
Nitric acid, 91% 1506
Nitrogen 1.26
Oak, red 705
Oats 432
Oats, rolled 304
Oil cake 785
Oil, linseed 942
Oil, petroleum 881
Oxygen 1.43
Oyster shells, ground 849
Paper, standard 1201
Peanuts, shelled 641
Peanuts, not shelled 272
Peat, dry 400
Peat, moist 801
Peat, wet 1121
Pecan wood 753
Phosphate rock, broken 1762
Phosphorus 2339
Pitch 1153
Plaster 849
Platinum ore 2600
Porcelain 2403
Porphyry, solid 2547
Porphyry, broken 1650
Potash 1281
Potassium chloride 2002
Potatoes, white 769
Pumice, stone 641
Pyrite (fool's gold) 2400 - 5015
Quartz, solid 2643
Quartz, lump 1554
Quartz sand 1201
Resin, synthetic, crushed 561
Rice, hulled 753
Rice, rough 577
Rice grits 689
Rip-Rap 1602
Rock - soft - excavated with shovel 1600-1780
Rosin 1073
Rubber, caoutchouc 945
Rubber, manufactured 1522
Rubber, ground scrap 481
Rye 705
Salt cake 1442
Salt, course 801
Salt, fine 1201
Saltpeter 1201
Sand, wet 1922
Sand, wet, packed 2082
Sand, dry 1602
Sand, loose 1442
Sand, rammed 1682
Sand, water filled 1922
Sand with Gravel, dry 1650
Sand with Gravel, wet 2020
Sandstone, solid 2323
Sandstone, broken 1370-1450
Sawdust 210
Sewage, sludge 721
Shale, solid 2675
Shale, broken 1586
Shells - oyster 800
Sinter 1600-2180
Slag, solid 2114
Slag, broken 1762
Slag, crushed, 1/4 inch 1185
Slag, furn. granulated 961
Slate, solid 2691
Slate, broken 1290-1450
Slate, pulverized 1362
Smithsonite ( zinc ore ) 4300
Snow, freshly fallen 160
Snow, compacted 481
Soap, solid 801
Soap, chips 160
Soap, flakes 160
Soap, powdered 368
Soapstone talc 2400
Soda Ash, heavy 1080
Soda Ash, light 432
Sodium 977
Sodium Aluminate, ground 1153
Sodium Nitrate, ground 1201
Soy beans, whole 753
Starch, powdered 561
Stone, crushed 1602
Stone (common, generic) 2515
Sugar, brown 721
Sugar, powdered 801
Sugar, granulated 849
Sugar, raw cane 961
Sugarbeet pulp, dry 208
Sugarbeet pulp, wet 561
Sugarcane 272
Sulphur, solid 2002
Sulphur, lump 1314
Sulphur, pulverized 961
Taconite 2803
Talc, solid 2691
Talc, broken 1746
Tanbark, ground 881
Tankage 961
Tar 1153
Tobacco 320
Trap rock, solid 2883
Trap rock, broken 1746
Turf 400
Turpentine 865
Walnut, black, dry 609
Water, pure 1000
Water, sea (see liquids table) 1026
Wheat 769
Wheat, cracked 673
Wood chips - dry - see wood table 240- 520
Wool 1314
Zinc oxide 400

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The density of over 150 different liquids are listed below. While the data is useful for design, individual samples will differ. Temperature and purity will often have a marked influence.
As 1000kg of pure water @ 4°C = 1 cubic metre, those materials under 1000kg/cubic metre will float; more dense will sink ie. those materials with a specific gravity more than 1. More detailed data on water is on another page.

Pure water at 4°C (max. density) was chosen as the 'base line' for specific gravity and given the value of 1.

Some other standards set pure water at 60°F as sg = 1 so it is more correct to state the base used.
The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or lighter density.
For example, acetic acid has a specific gravity (sg) of 1.0491 while acetone has a sg of 0.785 (784.58 kg/cu.m) - see table below.
As specific gravity is just a comparison, it can be applied across any units. The density of pure water is also 62.4 lbs/cu.ft (pounds per cubic foot) and if we know that a sample of ethyl alcohol has a sg of 0.785 then we can calculate that its density is 0.785 x 62.4 = 49 lbs/cu.ft.
Note, kg/cu.m divided by 16.02 = lbs/cu.ft.
kg/cu.m divided by 1,000 = g/ml (grams per millilitre) and also = kg/L (1000g = 1 kg and 1000ml = 1 Litre)


Liquid Temp kg/cu.m
1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane 25 C 1564.00
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 20 C 1454.00
1,4-Dioxane 20 C 1033.60
2-Methoxyethanol 20 C 964.60
Acetic Acid 25 C 1049.10
Acetone 25 C 784.58
Acetonitrile 20 C 782.20
Alcohol, ethyl 25 C 785.06
Alcohol, methyl 25 C 786.51
Alcohol, propyl 25 C 799.96
Ammonia (aqua) 25 C 823.35
Analine 25 C 1018.93
Automobile oils 15 C 880 - 940
Beer (varies) 10 C 1010
Benzene 25 C 873.81
Benzil 25 C 1079.64
Brine 15 C 1230
Bromine 25 C 3120.40
Butyric Acid 20 C 959
Butane 25 C 599.09
n-Butyl Acetate 20 C 879.60
n-Butyl Alcohol 20 C 809.70
n-Butyl Chloride 20 C 886.20
Caproic acid 25 C 921.06
Carbolic acid 15 C 956.30
Carbon disulfide 25 C 1260.97
Carbon tetrachloride 25 C 1584.39
Carene 25 C 856.99
Castor oil 25 C 956.14
Chloride 25 C 1559.88
Chlorobenzene 20 C 1105.80
Chloroform 20 C 1489.20
Chloroform 25 C 1464.73
Citric acid 25 C 1659.51
Coconut oil 15 C 924.27
Cotton seed oil 15 C 925.87
Cresol 25 C 1023.58
Creosote 15 C 1066.83
Crude oil, 48° API 60 F 790
Crude oil, 40° API 60 F 825
Crude oil, 35.6° API 60 F 847
Crude oil, 32.6° API 60 F 862
Crude oil, California 60 F 915
Crude oil, Mexican 60 F 973
Crude oil, Texas 60 F 873
Cumene 25 C 860.19
Cyclohexane 20 C 778.50
Cyclopentane 20 C 745.40
Decane 25 C 726.28
Diesel fuel oil 20 to 60 15 C 820 - 950
Diethyl ether 20 C 714
o-Dichlorobenzene 20 C 1305.80
Dichloromethane 20 C 1326.00
Diethylene glycol 15 C 1120
Dichloromethane 20 C 1326.00
Dimethyl Acetamide 20 C 941.50
N,N-Dimethylformamide 20 C 948.70
Dimethyl Sulfoxide 20 C 1100.40
Dodecane 25 C 754.63
Ethane -89 C 570.26
Ether 25 C 72.72
Ethylamine 16 C 680.78
Ethyl Acetate 20 C 900.60
Ethyl Alcohol 20 C 789.20
Ethyl Ether 20 C 713.30
Ethylene Dichloride 20 C 1253.00
Ethylene glycol 25 C 1096.78
Fluorine refrigerant R-12 25 C 1310.95
Formaldehyde 45 C 812.14
Formic acid 10% concentration 20 C 1025
Formic acid 80% concentration 20 C 1221
Freon - 11 21 C 1490
Freon - 21 21 C 1370
Fuel oil 60 F 890.13
Furan 25 C 1416.03
Furforol 25 C 1154.93
Gasoline, natural 60 F 711.22
Gasoline, Vehicle 60 F 737.22
Gas oils 60 F 890
Glucose 60 F 1350 - 1440
Glycerin 25 C 1259.37
Glyme 20 C 869.10
Glycerol 25 C 1126.10
Heptane 25 C 679.50
Hexane 25 C 654.83
Hexanol 25 C 810.53
Hexene 25 C 671.17
Hydrazine 25 C 794.52
Iodine 25 C 4927.28
Ionene 25 C 932.27
Isobutyl Alcohol 20 C 801.60
Iso-Octane 20 C 691.90
Isopropyl Alcohol 20 C 785.40
Isopropyl Myristate 20 C 853.20
Kerosene 60 F 817.15
Linolenic Acid 25 C 898.64
Linseed oil 25 C 929.07
Methane -164 C 464.54
Methanol 20 C 791.30
Methyl Isoamyl Ketone 20 C 888.00
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 20 C 800.80
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone 20 C 808.20
Methyl t-Butyl Ether 20 C 740.50
N-Methylpyrrolidone 20 C 1030.40
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) 20 C 804.90
MEK 25 C 802.52
Milk 15 C 1020 - 1050
Naphtha 15 C 664.77
Naphtha, wood 25 C 959.51
Napthalene 25 C 820.15
Ocimene 25 C 797.72
Octane 15 C 917.86
Olive oil 20 C 800 - 920
Oxygen (liquid) -183 C 1140
Palmitic Acid 25 C 850.58
Pentane 20 C 626.20
Pentane 25 C 624.82
Petroleum Ether 20 C 640.00
Petrol, natural 60 F 711.22
Petrol, Vehicle 60 F 737.22
Phenol 25 C 1072.28
Phosgene 0 C 1377.59
Phytadiene 25 C 823.35
Pinene 25 C 856.99
Propane -40 C 583.07
Propane, R-290 25 C 493.53
Propanol 25 C 804.13
Propylene Carbonate 20 C 1200.60
Propylene 25 C 514.35
n-Propyl Alcohol 20 C 803.70
Propylene glycol 25 C 965.27
Pyridine 25 C 978.73
Pyrrole 25 C 965.91
Rape seed oil 20 C 920
Resorcinol 25 C 1268.66
Rosin oil 15 C 980
Sabiname 25 C 812.14
Sea water 25 C 1025.18
Silane 25 C 717.63
Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda) 15 C 1250
Sorbaldehyde 25 C 895.43
Soya bean oil 15 C 924 - 928
Stearic Acid 25 C 890.63
Sulphuric Acid 95% conc. 20 C 1839
Sugar solution 68 brix 15 C 1338
Sunflower oil 20 C 920
Styrene 25 C 903.44
Terpinene 25 C 847.38
Tetrahydrofuran 20 C 888.00
Toluene 20 C 866.90
Toluene 25 C 862.27
Triethylamine 20 C 727.60
Trifluoroacetic Acid 20 C 1489.00
Turpentine 25 C 868.20
Water, pure (more temperatures) 4 C 1000.00
Water, sea 77 F 1021.98
Whale oil 15 C 925
o-Xylene 20 C 880.20

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