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Amorphous metal transformer ?

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Amorphous metal transformer ?

Bài gửi  duyminh on Wed Dec 29, 2010 3:26 pm

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Amorphous metal transformer

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Electrical transformer for distribution (Amorphous transformer)


Amorphous Metal Transformer (AMT) is a type of energy efficient transformer found on electric grids.[1] The magnetic core of this transformer is made with amorphous metal, which is easily magnetized / demagnetized. Typically, core loss can be 70–80% less than its traditional counterpart. This leads to a reduction of generation requirement and, when using electric power generated from fossilized fuels, less CO2 emission.[2][3] It has been widely adopted by large developing countries such as China[4] and India[5] where energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction have been put on priority. These two countries can potentially save 25–30 TWh electricity annually, eliminate 6-8 GW generation investment, and reduce 20–30 million tons of CO2 emission by fully utilizing this technology.

As one of the major programs to improve grid efficiency (also see Ultra High Voltage (UHV) Transmission in China), China has started to massively install amorphous metal transformers in a number of energy intensive provinces since 2005. Over 20,000 MVA of such transformers are installed every year.[6][7] This movement has also led to the successful development and production of amorphous metal ribbon in China.[8]

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What is Amorphous Metal?

An amorphous metal is a metal with a disordered atomic structure, in contrast to most metals, which have a regular structure. These substances are also called metallic glasses, because one way of making amorphous metals resembles the procedure for making glass, but using metal instead of silica. Studies indicate that amorphous metals may be more than twice as strong as normal metal, and are ideal for military armor, weighing the same as ordinary metal. Because of the material's disordered structure, it is also more resistant to corrosion and wear.

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Amorphous Core Transformers

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Amorphous core transformers reduce the impact on the global environment. The transformers use an amorphous alloy in their iron core which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss. The savings are equivalent to the amount of CO2 absorbed annually by about 500 cedar trees (*2). This high level of energy conservation contributes to reducing CO2 emissions.

*1 Based on a comparison between the Super Amorphous X SP Series (three-phase, 1,000 kVA 50 Hz, equivalent load factor of 50%) and Hitachi products. *2 The amount of CO2 that one cedar tree can absorb each year is about 14 kg. The reduction in CO2 emissions (tons/year) is calculated based on an emission coefficient for general electricity utilities in Japan of 0.555 (kg-CO2/kWh). Cited from the "Order for Enforcement on the Act on the Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures" enacted by the Cabinet of Japan, issued on March 4, 2006.

What is an amorphous core transformer?

The role of a transformer is to convert high-voltage electricity supplied from a power station into lower-voltage electricity for safe use. Transformers operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week during which time they undergo constant losses of 2 to 4% of the electricity that passes through them. This loss is divided into two different categories: load losses caused by the load on the transformer during the use of electricity and no-load losses (standby electricity) caused regardless of whether a load is present. Amorphous core transformers significantly reduce no-load losses by using an amorphous alloy (*3) for the iron core, which the transformer windings that carry the electricity are coiled.
Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd. is the only manufacturer of amorphous core transformers in Japan with an integrated production line that extends from iron core processing through to assembly that requires advanced processing techniques.

Amorphous Core Transformers

Amorphous core transformers reduce the impact on the global environment. The transformers use an amorphous alloy in their iron core which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss. The savings are equivalent to the amount of CO2 absorbed annually by about 500 cedar trees (*2). This high level of energy conservation contributes to reducing CO2 emissions.

*1 Based on a comparison between the Super Amorphous X SP Series (three-phase, 1,000 kVA 50 Hz, equivalent load factor of 50%) and Hitachi products. *2 The amount of CO2 that one cedar tree can absorb each year is about 14 kg. The reduction in CO2 emissions (tons/year) is calculated based on an emission coefficient for general electricity utilities in Japan of 0.555 (kg-CO2/kWh). Cited from the "Order for Enforcement on the Act on the Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures" enacted by the Cabinet of Japan, issued on March 4, 2006. (Released in March 2009)
What is an amorphous core transformer?

The role of a transformer is to convert high-voltage electricity supplied from a power station into lower-voltage electricity for safe use. Transformers operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week during which time they undergo constant losses of 2 to 4% of the electricity that passes through them. This loss is divided into two different categories: load losses caused by the load on the transformer during the use of electricity and no-load losses (standby electricity) caused regardless of whether a load is present. Amorphous core transformers significantly reduce no-load losses by using an amorphous alloy (*3) for the iron core, which the transformer windings that carry the electricity are coiled.
Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd. is the only manufacturer of amorphous core transformers in Japan with an integrated production line that extends from iron core processing through to assembly that requires advanced processing techniques.


Load loss may vary depending on the extent of the load, while no-load loss is constant. For example, when a factory begins production, load loss depends on the variable load, whereas no-load losses are constant regardless of the load. The key to reducing energy loss lies in how to reduce the no-load losses.

*3 What is an amorphous alloy?
Metals have a crystalline structure with an orderly arrangement of atoms. A metal in a liquid state at a high temperature can retain its liquid structure upon solidifying if it is cooled rapidly. The resulting non-crystalline alloy has a random arrangement of crystals and is called an amorphous alloy. Amorphous alloys have excellent strength and electrical characteristics, but require advanced techniques for machining.

World-Class Level of Energy Conservation!

Transformers are used for a long period of time, with an average life span of 25 to 30 years. Therefore, it is important to minimize the no-load losses that are incurred for as long as the transformer is operating. Amorphous transformers have reduced no-load loss to about one third of the losses in conventional transformers (*1). As a result, up to about 44% of total losses are eliminated in comparison to the Top Runner standards (*4) specified under the Energy Conservation Act*1 Amorphous transformers will contribute to an annual reduction of up to about 7.2 tons of CO2 emissions. This is equivalent to the annual CO2 absorption by up to about 500 cedar trees (*2).

The world's first Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (*5) for power transmission and distribution networks, based on amorphous core transformers, has been approved by the United Nations. For example, if all of the transformers for power distribution across Japan were replaced by amorphous core transformers, annual CO2 emissions would be reduced by about four million tons. This is a world-class level of energy Conservation. Hitachi will continue contributing to [counter]measures preventing global warming.
*4 What are the Top Runner standards?
Transformers are designated pieces of equipment under the Energy Conservation Act (law concerning the rational use of energy) which stipulate reference values (Top Runner standards) for evaluating energy efficiency (total losses) and also the date of application. *5 What is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)?
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an arrangement allowing industrialized countries to provide financial or technical support to developing countries in projects that reduce greenhouse gases, as an alternative to more expensive methods in their own homeland.

Manufacturing to Reduce CO2 Emissions

Nakajo Works, Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd.


The transformers used for receiving and distributing high-voltage power produced at Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd.'s Nakajo Works have the top share of the Japanese market. The site, which is located in a rich natural environment, surrounded by pine groves facing the sea (in Tainai City, Niigata Prefecture), also produces switches, air cleaners and other equipment.

This factory was an early adopter of energy-conservation equipment and systems, and works aggressively to reduce CO2 emissions. The site makes continuous improvements and efforts to rationalize energy use, by designating the keywords "End", "Repair" and "Change" for improvement and identification of waste. In recognition of its performance, Nakajo Works is a model factory for energy conservation and has twice received governmental commendations (in 1979 and 2005) for outstanding energy management.



For example, electric power losses were minimized by the introduction of Super Amorphous Transformers. The number of transformers was successfully decreased from 48 to 33 by rearranging the layout based on the realization of actual energy use. These reductions produced energy conservation benefits totaling 503 MWh. Real-time power usage examination facilitated a number of changes including improvements to production and air conditioning equipment, a switch to clean energy (gas) and a lighting upgrade. Nakajo Works is achieving its goal of manufacturing in a way that reduces the impact on the environment with measures that include the introduction of test equipment for energy conservation and replacing or improving the efficiency of its plant with a target of 60% by 2010 (relative to the level in 1990).


* The awards and standards referred to in the text apply to Japan. The Hitachi Group views the Amorphous Core Transformers as one of the ways of achieving our Environmental Vision 2025, with its goal of helping to reduce CO2 emissions by 100 million tons annually by 2025.


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